Learning Disability Glossary
Accommodations - Techniques and materials that allow individuals with LD to complete school or work tasks with greater ease and effectiveness. Examples include spellcheckers, tape recorders, and expanded time for completing assignments.
Assistive Technology- Equipment that enhances the ability of students and employees to be more efficient and successful. For individuals with LD, computer grammar checkers, an overhead projector used by a teacher, or the audiovisual information delivered through a CD-ROM would be typical examples.
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) - A severe difficulty in focusing and maintaining attention. Often leads to learning and behavior problems at home, school, and work. Also called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Brain Injury-The physical damage to brain tissue or structure that occurs before, during, or after birth that is verified by EEG, MRI, CAT, or a similar examination, rather than by observation of performance. When caused by an accident, the damage may be called Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).
Developmental Aphasia - A severe language disorder that is presumed to be due to brain injury rather than because of a developmental delay in the normal acquisition of language.
Dyscalculia - A severe difficulty in understanding and using symbols or functions needed for success in mathematics.
Dysgraphia - A severe difficulty in producing handwriting that is legible and written at an age-appropriate speed.
Dyslexia - A severe difficulty in understanding or using one or more areas of language, including listening, speaking, reading, writing, and spelling.
Dysnomia - A marked difficulty in remembering names or recalling words needed for oral or written language.
Dyspraxia- A severe difficulty in performing drawing, writing, buttoning, and other tasks requiring fine motor skill, or in sequencing the necessary movements.
Learning Modalities - Approaches to assessment or instruction stressing the auditory, visual, or tactile avenues for learning that are dependent upon the individual.
Learning Styles-Approaches to assessment or instruction emphasizing the variations in temperament, attitude, and preferred manner of tackling a task. Typically considered are styles along the active/passive, reflective/impulsive, or verbal/spatial dimensions.
Neuropsychological Examination - A series of tasks that allow observation of performance that is presumed to be related to the intactness of brain function.
Transition- Commonly used to refer to the change from secondary school to postsecondary programs, work, and independent living typical of young adults. Also used to describe other periods of major change such as from early childhood to school or from more specialized to mainstreamed settings.