‌‌‌Sto:lo Land Question: Chilliwack, July to September 2009

S'olh Temexw: Our Sto:lo Land  
   
   
      

Prehistory: 8,000 to 10,000 years ago


• 8,000 to 10,000 years ago: Aboriginal people leave evidence of occupation in Lower Mainland and Fraser Valley

4,000 to 6,500 years ago

• 4,000 to 6,500 years ago: red and yellow cedar appear, Fraser River salmon runs become abundant, first Sto:lo pit houses and plank houses appear

First contact with Europeans: 1579-1778

• 1579 Sir Francis Drake may have made first European contact with North American Aboriginal people

• 1670 Hudson’s Bay Company granted Royal Charter giving the company control over Western Canada

• 1763 Royal Proclamation calls for treaties before European settlement

• 1778 Captain James Cook claims North America's west coast for Britain

Early treaties: 1850-1870s

• 1850-54 James Douglas, Chief Factor of Fort Victoria, negotiates the 14 Douglas Treaties with Aboriginal people on Vancouver Island


• 1863-64 Douglas, now governor of the Crown Colony of British Columbia, begins creating large reserves rather than negotiating treaties but dies before registering them

• 1867 Joseph Trutch, Indian Affairs chief commissioner of lands and works, unilaterally reduces reserves Douglas created by 90 per cent

• 1860s and 70s Aboriginal groups petition repeatedly for land compensation, additional lands and land settlement. Trutch rejects Aboriginal title. Aboriginal people are not permitted to occupy unsurveyed or unreserved land


The Indian Act: 1876-1927


• 1876 Indian Act becomes law

• 1906 Traditional chiefs Joe Capilano from Squamish, Basil David from Shuswap and Chillihitza from Okanagan unsuccessfully petition Edward VII on land claims 

 • 1916 Aboriginal groups take the land fight to the courts, while the Royal Commission report on Indian Affairs for BC is released, ultimately resulting in reserve sizes shrinking again

• 1927 The Indian Act is amended to prohibit Aboriginal people from raising money or hiring lawyers to pursue land claims in court

Union of BC Indian Chiefs: 1969-1997


• 1969 Federal white paper proposes abolishing Indian status. In response, Aboriginal groups form the Union of BC Indian Chiefs and start land claim proceedings. Nisga’a people assert title to their land in the Calder Case

• 1994 Sto:lo Nation is formed and begins comprehensive treaty negotiations with federal and provincial governments

• 1997 In the Delgamuukw case, the Supreme Court of Canada declares Aboriginal title exists in BC

Present

• 2009 BC proposes a Recognition and Reconciliation Act but the All Chiefs Assembly rejects the initial legislation because the province does not have jurisdiction over indigenous rights and title. Negotiations continue

To learn more: http://www.gov.bc.ca/arr/newrelationship/default.htm and: http://www.ubcic.bc.ca

‌‌

Sour‌ce:

Carlson, Keith Thor. A Stó:lo-Coast Salish historical atlas. Vancouver : Douglas & McIntyre ; Seattle : University of Washington Press ; Chilliwack, B.C. : Stó:lo Heritage Trust, c2001.

Acknowledgements:

The library wishes to thank Sto:lo Nation, UFV instructor Her Honour Gwen Point, UFV senior advisor on Indigenous affairs, Shirley Hardman, UFV's Aboriginal Access Centre and UFV Instructional Media Services for their help in creating the poster.

   

 


Cedar Transtormation

     Long ago the world was very different than it is today. Everything was mixed up and things were constantly changing.
     Into this chaotic world came Xa:ls. Xa:ls was one of the children of black bear and red-headed woodpecker. 
     Xa:ls came to fix the world and make it right by transforming it into its permanent form. One of the people Xa:ls transformed was Xep"c:y. He was a good man who was always helping others. Whatever they needed, he gave.
     When the Great Spirit saw this, he said "that man has done his work. When he dies and where he is buried, a cedar tree will grow. It will give the people roots for basket, bark for clothing, and wood for shelters."

       As told by the late Bertha Peters and in Carlson, Keith Thor. "I am Stó:l¯o! : Katherine explores her heritage." Chilliwack, B.C. : Stó:l¯o Heritage Trust, c1998.



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Abrams, Rachel. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the Chehalis First Nation --  [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 2001. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 R63 2001 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

Abrams, Rachel. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the Lakahahmen First Nation --  [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 2000. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 A375 2000 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

Abrams, Rachel. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the Scowlitz First Nation --  [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 2000. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 A376 2000 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

Abrams, Rachel. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the Union Bar First Nation --  [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 2000. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 R643 2000 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

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Canada. Treaties, etc. 1877 Sept. 22.Copy of treaty and supplementary treaty no. 7 made 22nd Sept. and 4th Dec., 1877, between Her Majesty the Queen and the Blackfeet and other Indian tribes at the Blackfoot crossing of Bow River and Fort McCleod [electronic resource].--  [S.l. : s.n., 1877?]. -- Call number: E-BOOK ON THE INTERNET (Website).

Carlson, Keith Thor. 1877 Sept. 22.A Stó:lo-Coast Salish historical atlas. --  Vancouver : Douglas & McIntyre ; Seattle : University of Washington Press ; Chilliwack, B.C. : Stó:lo Heritage Trust, c2001. -- Call number: G 1171 E1 S86 2001 (Abbotsford, Chilliwack, Mission).

Cassidy, Frank. Aboriginal title in British Columbia : Delgamuukw v. the Queen. --  Lantzville, B.C. : Oolichan Books, 1992. -- Call number: KEB 529.5 L3 A36 1992 (Abbotsford, Chilliwack).

Chandler, Sarah. The never broken treaty? [sound recording] : Quaker witness and testimony on aboriginal title and rights : what canst thou say? --  Toronto : Canadian Friends Service Committee, c2001. -- Call number: E 98 L3 C52 2001 (Abbotsford, Chilliwack).

Churchill, Ward. Struggle for the land : indigenous resistance to genocide, ecocide, and expropriation in contemporary North America. --  Toronto : Between The Lines, c1992. -- Call number: E 98 L3 C58 1992 (Chilliwack).

Cheshire, F. J. To the settlers on crown lands, Grand River, C.W. [electronic resource]. --  [Hamilton, Ont.? : s.n., 1846?] Gazette). -- Call number: E-BOOK ON THE INTERNET (Website).

Coates, Kenneth. Aboriginal land claims in Canada : a regional perspective. --  Toronto : Copp Clark Pitman, c1992. -- Call number: KE 7718 Z85 A36 1992 (Abbotsford, Chilliwack).

DePasquale, Paul W. (Paul Warren. Natives & settlers, now & then : historical issues and current perspectives on treaties and land claims in Canada. Edmonton : University of Alberta Press, c2007. -- Call number: KE 7709.5 N385 2007 (Abbotsford).

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Face to Face Media. Potlatch [videorecording] ; Time immemorial ; Uranium. [Montreal] : National Film Board of Canada, 1993. -- Call number: E 78 C2 F58 1993 pt.3 (Abbotsford, Chilliwack).

Foster, Hamar. Let right be done : Aboriginal title, the Calder case, and the future of Indigenous rights. Vancouver : UBC Press, c2007. -- Call number: E 78 C2 L48 2007 (Abbotsford).

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Fraticelli, Rina. Changing ground [videorecording]. [Toronto, ON] : CBC Non-Broadcast Sales, 2001. -- Call number: DU 740.42 C45 2001 (Abbotsford).

Grant Thornton Management Consultants.Financial and economic analysis of treaty settlements in British Columbia. Victoria, B.C. : [Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs], 1999. -- Call number: GOV PUB 3153 BC.ABA 1999 (Chilliwack).

Green, L. C. (Leslie C.). The law of nations and the New World. Edmonton : University of Alberta Press, c1989. -- Call number: E 98 C6 G74 1989 (Abbotsford, Chilliwack).

Harding, Jim. Aboriginal rights and government wrongs : uranium mining and neocolonialism in northern Saskatchewan. Regina : Prairie Justice Research, 1992. -- Call number: E 78 S37 H37 1992(Chilliwack).

Johnson, Harold. Two families : treaties and government. Saskatoon : Purich Pub., c2007. -- Call number: E 78 C2 J635 2007 (Abbotsford, Chilliwack).

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Joseph, Sheila. Upper Sto:lo impact study re: twin track project, Alexandria Bridge to Langley, B.C. : final report. Sardis, B.C. : Sto:lo Nation, 1983. -- Call number: E 99 S72 J67 (Abbotsford, Chilliwack).

Kuhlen, Daniel J. A layperson's guide to treaty rights in Canada. Saskatoon : Native Law Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 1985. -- Call number: KE 7702.7 K85 1985 (Chilliwack).

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Lackenbauer, P. Whitney. Battle grounds : the Canadian military and aboriginal lands. Vancouver : University of British Columbia Press, c2007. -- Call number: E 92 L235 2007 (Chilliwack).

Lippert, Owen. Beyond the Nass Valley : national implications of the Supreme Court's Delgamuukw decision. Vancouver : Fraser Institute, 2000. -- Call number: KE 7739 L3 B49 2000 (Abbotsford).

McKee, Christopher. Treaty talks in British Columbia : negotiating a mutually beneficial future. Vancouver : UBC Press, c2000. -- Call number: KEB 529.4 M34 2000 (Abbotsford, Chilliwack).

McNeil, Kent. Common law aboriginal title. Oxford [England] : Clarendon Press, 1989. -- Call number: KD 833 M36 1989 (Chilliwack).

McCullum, Hugh. Dene nation : the struggle of Canada's internal colony for self-determination. Geneva : WCC Publications Office, [1978?]. -- Call number: E 99 T56 D466 1978 (Chilliwack).

Memorial of the Chippeway Indians of Port Sarnia, Warpole Island, Kettle Point, and Sauble, touching their claim of the grant of £1,100 currency perpetual annuity [electronic resource] : to His Excellency the Governor General in council that the foreign Indians may participate in the annuity . [London, Ont.? : s.n., 1871?] Herald). -- Call number: E-Book on the Internet (Website).

Mid-Canada Television (Firm). Comprehensive claims [videorecording]. [Ontario] : Mid-Canada Television ; Oakville, Ont. : Magic Lantern Communications [distributor], 1992 ; Vancouver, BC : Image Media [distributor]. -- Call number: E 78 C2 A36 no.25 (Chilliwack).

Mid-Canada Television (Firm). Treaty 7 Blood Tribe [videorecording]. [Ontario] : Mid-Canada Television ; Oakville, Ont. : Magic Lantern Communications [distributor], 1992 ; Vancouver, BC : Image Media [distributor]. -- Call number: E 78 C2 A36 no.33 (Chilliwack).

Miller, James Rodger. Compact, contract, covenant : Aboriginal treaty-making in Canada. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2009. -- Call number: Just Received (Abbotsford).

Mills, Patricia Dawn.For future generations : reconciling Git_xsan and Canadian law. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2009. -- Call number: E 99 K55 M555 2008 (Chilliwack).

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Odjig, Alfred. Aboriginal rights in Canada . Ottawa : National Library of Canada, 1985. -- Call number: E 92 O45 (Abbotsford).

Ogston, Leigh. Researching the Indian land question in B.C. : an introduction to research strategies & archival research for band researchers. Vancouver : Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs, 1998. -- Call number: E 78 B9 R47 1998 (Chilliwack).

Penikett, Antony. Reconciliation : First Nations treaty making in British Columbia. Vancouver : Douglas & McIntyre, c2006. -- Call number: E 78 B9 P46 2006 (Abbotsford).

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Robinson, Gary W. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the St. Mary's First Nation [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 1999. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 R626 1999 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

Rocha, Christina. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the Skawahlook First Nation --  [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 2001. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 R635 2001 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

Rocha, Christina. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the Skowkale First Nation --  [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 2000. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 R636 2000 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

Rocha, Christina. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the Skwah First Nation --  [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 2000. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 R637 2000 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

Rocha, Christina. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the Soowahlie First Nation --  [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 2001. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 R635 2001 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

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Rocha, Christina. First Nations water rights in British Columbia. A historical summary of the rights of the Tzeachten First Nation --  [Victoria, B.C.] : Water Management Branch, 2000. Call number: KEB 529.5 W3 R64 2000 (Chilliwack Heritage Collection).

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Thompson, Ruth. Aboriginal title and mining legislation in the Northwest Territories. Saskatoon : University of Saskatchewan Native Law Centre, 1982. -- Call number: KEN 5929.5 L3 T56 1982 (Chilliwack).

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White, Jerry Patrick. Permission to develop : Aboriginal treaties, case law and regulations. --  Toronto : Thompson Educational Pub., c2004. Call number: KE 7709 W44 2004 (Abbotsford).

Other Resources:

Aboriginal Canada Portal: “Claims and Treaties” http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/historical/indiantreaties/historicaltreaties

Aboriginal Documentary Heritage: Library and Archives Canada:
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/aboriginal-heritage/020016-1000-e.html

Assembly of First Nations:
http://www.afn.ca/

Atlas of Canada: “Historical Indian Treaties” http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/historical/indiantreaties/historicaltreaties

BC Treaty Commission:
http://www.bctreaty.net/index.php

British Columbia: The New Relationship with First Nations and Aboriginal People:
http://www.gov.bc.ca/arr/newrelationship/

Canada, Virtual Museum: Delgamuukw: A Community Struggle for Aboriginal Title:
http://www.upperskeena.ca/vmc/english/index.htm

Canadian Encyclopedia: “Indian Treaties”
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0003983

First Nations land use links: UBC Xwi7xwa Library:
http://www.library.ubc.ca/xwi7xwa/fland.htm

First Peoples of Canada: Canadian Museum of Civilization: h
ttp://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/aborig/fp/fpint01e.shtml

Indian Claims Commission:
http://www.indianclaims.ca/menu-en.asp 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: "Fact Sheet: The Nisga'a Treaty:"
http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ai/mr/is/nit-eng.asp

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: “HistoricTreaties:” http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/al/hts/index-eng.asp

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: "Royal Commission Report on Aboriginal Peoples:" http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/prb9924-e.htm

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: "Royal Commission Report on Aboriginal Peoples" Highlights: http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ap/rrc-eng.asp

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: "Why is Canada Negotiating Treaties in BC?:" http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ai/scr/bc/trts/whcngt/index-eng.asp

Indian Reserves, Western Canada: Library and Archives Canada:
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/databases/indian-reserves/index-e.html

Ministry of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation: "BC Treaty Negotiations:"
http://www.gov.bc.ca/arr/treaty/negotiating/default.html

Ministry of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation: "Tsawwassen First Nation Treaty:"
http://www.gov.bc.ca/arr/firstnation/tsawwassen/default.html

Sto:Lo Xwexwilmexw Treaty Association:
http://www.bctreaty.net/nations/stolonation.php

Sto:lo Nation: The People of the River:
http://www.stolonation.bc.ca/

Treaty 8: Library and Archives Canada:
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/treaty8/index-e.html

Union of BC Indian Chiefs:
http://www.ubcic.bc.ca/

Yale Law School: Royal Proclamation of 1763:
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/proc1763.asp


Last updated September 28, 2009 lm

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