Academic Calendar Fall 2017

Criminology/Criminal Justice

Many of the seats in these courses are reserved for students in a Criminal Justice program. Other students may take these courses if they meet the prerequisites and there is space. In all courses, students who do not satisfy the prerequisites may request instructor’s permission to register in the course.


English language proficiency requirements

Students registering in post-secondary level courses (numbered 100 to 499) will be required to meet the English language entrance proficiency requirements. Students in ELS or the University Foundations programs can register in those courses identified in the University Foundations program with lower levels of language proficiency.

Please note that not all courses are offered every semester.

CRIM 100

3 credits

Introduction to Criminology

Prerequisite(s): None

This course examines the historical evolution of criminological thought and criminology as a science and a profession. The structure, content, theoretical paradigms, and practical applications of the discipline are investigated as well as some of its terminology (e.g., crime, deviance, criminal, victim, rehabilitation, and treatment).

CRIM 103

3 credits

Introduction to the Criminal Justice System

Prerequisite(s): None

This introductory course provides an analysis of historical and contemporary operational practices of the criminal justice system. Beginning with the moment that a crime is reported, and following the offender through the various decision stages, from initial police involvement to the paroled release of a convicted offender, this course examines the use of discretion, the day-to-day practices of criminal justice personnel, and the patterns of decision-making and problems that underlie the operation of the criminal justice system.

CRIM 104

3 credits

Sociological Explanations of Criminal and Deviant Behaviour

Prerequisite(s): None

This course examines the sociological, sociocultural, and sociopsychological explanations of criminal and deviant behavior, which include ecological theories of crime and delinquency, conflict theories, control theories, and symbolic-interactionist theories.

CRIM 105

3 credits

Psychological Explanations of Criminal and Deviant Behaviour

Prerequisite(s): None

This course examines the cause of criminal and deviant behaviour in terms of psychological theories and suppositions, including psychophysiological, psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive, and biological theories. The focus of the course is on the similarities and differences across theories and research findings and on the relationship between theories discussed and criminal justice policy.

CRIM 129

3 credits

Academic and Professional Development

Prerequisite(s): None

This course provides an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to be successful in the Criminal Justice program, in field placements, and on the job. Particular emphasis will be placed on developing writing skills. Opportunities will be provided for learners to assess their interests, values, beliefs, and ethical stance on critical issues. This course is required for all first-year Criminal Justice students.

CRIM 201

2 credits

Physical Fitness Training I

Prerequisite(s): None

This course provides an individualized fitness program utilizing modern health-club facilities and sophisticated evaluation procedures. Students will be required to attend health-club facilities three times per week.

CRIM 202

2 credits

Physical Fitness Training II

Prerequisite(s): None

The course provides a continuation of CRIM 201. Each student's program will be re-evaluated and intensified.

CRIM 203

2 credits

Peace Officer Use of Force

Prerequisite(s): None

This course provides students with an opportunity to learn and practise physical contact tactics specifically related to law enforcement.

CRIM 205

3 credits

Police Psychology and Risk Assessment

Prerequisite(s): CRIM 105, or students with related work experience may request a prerequisite waiver from the instructor

This course provides an introduction to the assessment of risk for sexually deviant and violent behaviour. Students will learn the factors correlated to the prediction of violent and sexually deviant behaviour including psychopathy, mental illness, personality disorders, and developmental history. The effect of substance abuse on an individual's propensity for violence and criminal behaviour will also be explored

CRIM 210

3 credits

Youth Crime and the Youth Justice System in Canada

Prerequisite(s): None

This course provides students with an analysis of the nature, prevalence, characteristics, and consequences of youth crime in Canada. It offers an overview of the political, social, legal, and criminological issues associated with youth crime in Canada. The historical development of Canada’s juvenile justice and child protection systems are examined, as well as the legal framework established by the Youth Criminal Justice Act. That statute is reviewed in detail and in relation to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and various other international human rights standards. The objectives pursued by the criminal justice system are examined in relation to prevailing scientific and popular explanations of juvenile deviance and delinquency. The relative effectiveness of the youth justice system in preventing and responding to your crime is also considered.

CRIM 211

3 credits

Indigenous Peoples, Crime and Criminal Justice

Prerequisite(s): None

An examination of some of the major historical and contemporary issues regarding indigenous peoples, crime, and the criminal justice system. Some of the issues to be explored include the impact of colonization, Aboriginal involvement with the police, courts, and corrections, government policies and programs aimed at reducing Aboriginal conflict with the law, and the increasing role of Aboriginal communities in implementing justice initiatives.

CRIM 212

3 credits

Women, Crime and Criminal Justice

Prerequisite(s): None

Examines the nature of crimes committed by females and some of the sociological, sociocultural, and sociopsychological explanations of this criminal and deviant behaviour. Women's experiences as survivors and victims of criminal behaviour and as professionals working within the criminal justice system will be explored. Societal responses to female victims, offenders, and professionals will be examined.

CRIM 213

3 credits

Directed Studies

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor

Independent reading and research topics will be selected in consultation with the supervising instructor. Students interested in more information should contact the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

CRIM 214

3 credits

Selected Topics in Crime and Criminal Justice

Prerequisite(s): None

This course will review theory, methods, and research results in a selected area of criminal justice. Students should check with the Criminology and Criminal Justice department to determine the content area for a particular semester.

CRIM 215

3 credits

Theory and Practice of Restorative Justice

Prerequisite(s): None

This course provides students with an introduction to the theory and practice of restorative justice. Theoretical, historical, and philosophical perspectives on restorative justice will be analyzed. Foundational principles and values of restorative justice will be explored in the context of restorative justice as a response to crime and violence distinct from traditional methods within the criminal justice system. A variety of processes and program models for restorative justice will also be examined with emphasis on program effectiveness.

CRIM 216

3 credits

Psychopathy and the Criminal Justice System

Prerequisite(s): None

This course will examine the psychopath, the root causes of psychopathy, the behaviour of the psychopath, and the response of the criminal justice system to this personality disorder. In this class, students will learn about the historical perspectives of psychopathic personality disorder, potential causes of psychopathy, its relationship to general and violent offending, the differences between criminal and non-criminal psychopathy, and the challenges that psychopathy poses to the Canadian criminal justice system.

Note: Students with credit for CRIM 214E may not take CRIM 216 for further credit.

CRIM 220

3 credits

Research Methods in Criminology

Prerequisite(s): CRIM 100 and one of: CRIM 104, CRIM 105, PSYC 101 or SOC 101

This course is designed as an introduction to criminological research and is intended to develop the students' research and analytical skills. The course will focus on the theory of inquiry, the logic, reality and structure of criminological inquiry, and criminological analysis and reporting.

CRIM 230

3 credits

Criminal Law

Prerequisite(s): None

This course investigates the nature, purpose, scope, sources, and basic principles of criminal law within its historical and contemporary contexts. The evolution of such legal concepts as guilt, criminal responsibility, and due process of law is also studied. Current policy and legislation, e.g. the legislative policy inherent in the Criminal Code, the specific offenses and categories in the Criminal Code, the Young Offenders Act (Canada), the Protection of Children Act (BC), and the control and treatment of drug addicts, dangerous sexual offenders, habitual criminals, and mentally ill offenders, are examined in detail.

CRIM 240

3 credits

Comparative Criminal Justice Systems

Prerequisite(s): CRIM 103

This course offers an introduction to the study of several criminal justice systems. Specific focus will be placed on the role of political institutions, criminal law, history, and culture on the development of criminal justice systems. This course will also provide students with the opportunity to explore how different criminal justice systems respond to common problems, issues, and events.
Note: Students with credit for CRIM 460 may not take CRIM 240 for further credit

CRIM 250

3 credits

Customs and Immigration Law

Prerequisite(s): None

For students considering a career in Customs or Immigration, as well as for those with particular interest in this area, this course examines the Customs and Excise division of Revenue Canada, as well as the Immigration department, from an organization and legal perspective. The course covers the role of Customs and Excise as a part of the Revenue Canada mandate, relevant legislation such as the Customs Act and the Narcotic Control Act, current issues surrounding Customs policies, as well as internal regulatory procedures (e.g., search and seizure, appeal procedures and citizen’s rights). Also included are the other issues which relate to the Customs and Immigration authority, such as primary duties and relevant sections of the Criminal Code of Canada.

CRIM 251

3 credits

Law Enforcement in Canada

Prerequisite(s): None

This course surveys law enforcement agencies: their role in society, their organizational structure and management, and community expectations of their task. Specific police functions (e.g. patrol, investigation, traffic control, work with juveniles, crisis intervention) and powers (e.g. arrest, search and seizure) are closely examined. Attention is also given to the training of police officers and to policing as an occupation. Behavioural aspects of policing and an assessment of police effectiveness are emphasized.
Note: Students with credit for CRIM 151 cannot take this course for further credit.

CRIM 252

3 credits

Corrections in Canada

Prerequisite(s): None

This course provides a historical review of correctional systems and the current theory and practice of Canadian corrections. Topics include sentencing, the incarceration process, probation, parole, institutional programs (e.g., work, education, security, social), rehabilitation, offender case management, community-based correctional programs, correctional workers, and community involvement in corrections.
Note: Students with credit for CRIM 101 cannot take this course for further credit.

CRIM 265

3 credits

Problem Management Skills for Criminal Justice Interventions

Prerequisite(s): None

This course will provide students with a foundation set of skills in preparation for problem interventions in common criminal justice situations. They will examine theories and develop skills for successful interventions. The course introduces strategies for negotiation, mediation, crisis management, conflict de-escalation, and facilitation of problem solving and decision-making. The course also includes a focus on the necessary ethical dimension of professional interventions in the criminal justice field. Students will also learn appropriate intervention strategies for a wide range of situations including one-to-one encounters, in team situations, and in organizations. The skills of personal mastery, interpersonal communication skills, interviewing skills, conflict management, and understanding of diversity, team leadership, decision making and problem solving models are also introduced and practiced.
NOTE: Students with CRIM 260 cannot take CRIM 265 for further credit.

CRIM 270

4 credits

Introduction to Forensic Biology

Prerequisite(s): five university transfer courses, one of which must be from the following list: BIO 105, BIO 106, BIO 111, BIO 112 or CHEM 150

This course introduces the student to the techniques involved in locating, processing and interpreting forensic scenes with human remains. Students will learn to interpret the effects of biological and environmental factors on forensic scenes. Students will learn basic osteology so that they can identify human remains, determine their sex, age, ancestry, and stature and correctly interpret any associated trauma to the bones. This course includes a required one-day field exercise. Students must have a current tetanus shot.
Note: Credit cannot be obtained for both CRIM 270 and BIO 270.

CRIM 281

6 credits

Field Work Practicum

Prerequisite(s): CGPA of 2.67 or greater; CRIM 100, 103, 104, 105, and 265; CRIM 129 with a grade of B- or better; one of (CMNS 125, CMNS 155, or ENGL 105 or higher); and permission of the instructor.

This course provides a supervised experience in work situations in which you may later be employed. You will have an opportunity to practice skills gained in prerequisite courses and will receive feedback about your competencies. A field work practicum may be innovative and respond to community need. There will be a monthly feedback seminar with your instructor.

CRIM 310

3 credits

Advanced Theoretical Perspectives

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits, to include CRIM 100, 104, and 105; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course explores the diverse nature of theory within the field of crime and deviance by focusing on contemporary theories of crime and criminality. The selected paradigms are studied with regard to their explanatory domain, role in examining social and criminological problems, research implications, and practical ramifications.

CRIM 311

3 credits

Multiculturalism, Conflict, and Social Justice

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM, to include CRIM 100 and 103; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course examines the diverse social fabric of Canadian society and its implications for criminal and social justice. It provides students with a broad understanding of the social construction of “difference” and the inequalities that various cultural, ethnic, religious, and other “minority” groups have experienced, historically and in contemporary times, with the law and the criminal justice system in Canada. The course considers the experiences of specific social groups, such as Indigenous peoples and diaspora populations in relation to patterns of victimization, offending, differential processing by the criminal justice system, and as criminal justice professionals.

CRIM 320

4 credits

Quantitative Research Techniques

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including STAT 104 (formerly MATH 104) with a C or better and nine credits of lower-level Criminology including CRIM 220.

This course is designed to more fully introduce criminology and criminal justice students to applied social science research and builds on the skills developed in CRIM 220 and STAT 104. Students will become familiar with quantitative research methods through experience with statistical data analyses and report writing. Statistical analyses will be reviewed and applied, and the concepts underlying these statistical tests will be discussed. Students will also gain practical experience in using a statistical program on computers to analyze and interpret data.

CRIM 321

4 credits

Qualitative Research Methods

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level Criminology, to include CRIM 220.

This course is designed to more fully introduce criminology and criminal justice students to the theoretical foundations of applied social research in criminology and criminal justice. Various qualitative research methods and techniques, including content analysis, case studies, ethnographic interviewing, observation, and indigenous research methods will be introduced and applied in designing and conducting a qualitative research project. The ethics of qualitative research will be also discussed. Students will gain practical experience in working with qualitative data, including the use of qualitative analysis software.

CRIM 330

3 credits

Criminal Procedure and Evidence

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM, to include CRIM 103 and 230; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course covers the major areas of criminal procedure and collection of evidence at the pre-trial stage of the Canadian criminal process. The question of how to achieve the appropriate balance between the need for effective law enforcement and the importance of protecting individual rights as enshrined by the Charter of Rights and Freedoms permeates the course. The course content is framed by a discussion of wrongful convictions and an analysis of how the rules of criminal procedure might lead to wrongful convictions. Students will critically examine the issues discussed in the course and look introspectively at their own views concerning where the balance should lie between efficient and effective criminal procedural rules and individual rights and liberties.

CRIM 335

3 credits

Human Rights and Civil Liberties

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM, to include CRIM 100; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice. POSC 110 strongly recommended.

This course will provide an inquiry into the historical, legal, and political nature of Human Rights and Civil Liberties. The relationship between government and its citizens in the Canadian and international contexts will be critically analyzed. This course will provide a critical approach to the concept of human rights and include an examination of the strengths and weaknesses regarding national and international responses to human rights violations. Topics to be discussed include domestic human rights issues affecting Indigenous peoples and visible minorities in Canada; armed conflicts; doctrines promoting human rights and individual liberties; slavery and human trafficking; terrorism; international crimes; and political, social, economic, and gender rights.

CRIM 339

3 credits

Professional Ethics in Criminal Justice

Prerequisite(s): CRIM 103, and acceptance into the diploma in Criminal Justice program or into a degree program

This course studies professional ethics in the criminal justice system, with a special focus on law enforcement. The course will be organized into four subject areas: ethics education; dominant theoretical approaches (social contract, utilitarianism, formalism, and virtue theory); development of professional ethics; and ethical leadership. These subjects will be grounded in contemporary issues that criminal justice practitioners must address on a daily basis.

CRIM 400

3 credits

Terrorism

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course considers the nature, extent, and causes of political terrorism as an officially designated crime throughout the world and its effect on criminal justice systems. Emphasis is placed on extremism as a foundation for terrorist behaviour, specific types of terrorism, and how governments and law enforcement agencies endeavour to prevent and respond to terrorism. The main themes of this course are: a conceptual framework for understanding terrorism, investigating terrorist states and groups, the tools of the terrorist trade, and counter-terrorism laws and strategies.
Note: Students with credit for CRIM 410E may not take CRIM 400 for further credit.

CRIM 401

3 credits

Prostitution in Canada

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course will explore the political and social contexts of prostitution in Canada by critically evaluating research from a variety of sources. While the emphasis of the course will be on the Canadian commercial sex industry, we will survey the regulation of prostitution in other jurisdictions as well. Topics include the legislative history of prostitution in Canada, challenges and ethical issues facing sex workers, type of sex work (street, off-street, male sex workers, and trans-gendered sex work), vulnerable populations (youth, Aboriginal, and other visible minorities), research into clients, sexual exploitation, migration and trafficking, and law reform.
NOTE: Students with credit for CRIM 410F may not take CRIM 401 for further credit.

CRIM 402

3 credits

Mental Disorder and Crime

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course explores the relationship between mental disorder and crime. Students will be introduced to the historical development of this relationship and the current provincial legislation that governs it. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship between crime and specific disorders, such as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Schizophrenia, Psychopathy, and Addictions. In addition, the relationship between crime, specific disorders, and vulnerable populations will be discussed. Specific focus will be placed on the response to these disorders by criminal justice agencies.
NOTE: Students with credit for CRIM 410G may not take CRIM 402 for further credit.

CRIM 403

3 credits

Advanced Studies in Youth Crime and Justice

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits, including CRIM 210 and six additional credits of lower-level CRIM; or ermission of the School of
Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course is designed to advance the knowledge base of CRIM 210, Young Offenders and the Youth Justice System and provide students with practical skills that will assist them in working with at-risk populations of children and youth. Students will learn about the variety of at-risk populations of children and youth, and local and international best practices for preventing and intervening to reduce their risk of developing negative psychosocial outcomes, including mental health issues, addictions, homelessness, and contact with the criminal justice system. Local Indigenous practices and strategies, as well as international policies and practices, designed to mitigate risk among child and youth populations will be discussed. This course will apply a developmental perspective in understanding and responding to the issues faced by at-risk populations of children and youth, and will pay particular attention to specific segments of this population, including Indigenous, mentally ill, and LGBTQ children and youth, as well as children with incarcerated parents and child victims/witnesses of violence within and outside of the criminal justice system.

CRIM 410

3 credits

Selected Topics in Crime and Criminal Justice

Prerequisite(s): Will vary depending on topic; permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course critically reviews selected criminal justice phenomena through an analysis of theory, methods, and research. Students should check with the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice or the timetable to determine content area and prerequisites for a particular semester.

CRIM 411

3 credits

Directed Studies

Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor.

Independent reading and research topics selected in consultation with the supervising instructor. Students interested in more information should contact the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

CRIM 412

3 credits

Organized Crime

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM, to include CRIM 100 and 103; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice

This course will examine the issue of organized crime in North America. This course will primarily be grounded in theory and applied research emphasizing the police and government functional and operational roles. While concentrating on sociological and criminological theory, this course will also incorporate other fields, such as economics, history, political science, criminal intelligence, and operations theory.

CRIM 413

3 credits

History and Philosophy of Police Practices

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into a degree program (with a minimum of 45 university-transferable credits) and nine credits of lower-level CRIM including CRIM 100 and 151

This course surveys contemporary police practices (such as organization, enforcement emphasis, recruiting, community relations, role in politics, response to crime, use of force) in the modern world, with a special emphasis on democratic states. Consequently, international police practices will be examined in the context of their historical and philosophical roots. Although there will be a special emphasis on policing in Canada, the general concept of policing in a democracy will be examined through a comparative study of policing in countries such as England, the United States, France, Israel, and others.
Note: Criminology courses number 410 to 419 are not necessarily offered on an annual basis. Student should check the current timetable or contact the Criminology and Criminal Justice department for further information.

CRIM 414

3 credits

Intervention Techniques in Corrections

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into a degree program (with a minimum of 45 university-transferable credits) and nine credits of lower-level CRIM including CRIM 100 and 101

This course will examine the methods and means that criminal justice system personnel and associated professionals use to change criminal behaviour. The primary focus of these intervention techniques is to reduce recidivism. The course will review techniques that span from supervision to psychotherapy both inside and outside of jail or prison. The course is to develop the ability to critically analyze the theoretical foundations and treatment effectiveness (e.g., quantitative outcome research) of approaches in this area.
Note: Criminology courses number 410 to 419 are not necessarily offered on an annual basis. Student should check the current timetable or contact the Criminology and Criminal Justice department for further information.

CRIM 415

3 credits

Safe Schools: Moving from Policy to Practice

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM, to include CRIM 103 and 230; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course explores issues related to safer schools and communities by examining the nature and extent of intimidation and harassment in schools, educational and administrative responses to various aspects of school safety, and educational and administrative strategies to develop healthier and more inclusive educational settings. Philosophical and sociological discussions of educating for citizenship will provide the theoretical framework for the examination of safer schools.
Note: Students with credit for CRIM 410D cannot take CRIM 415 for further credit.

CRIM 416

3 credits

Media, Crime, and Criminal Justice

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM, to include CRIM 100 and CRIM 103; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course focuses on the relationship between the media and the criminal justice system. Various aspects of this relationship are examined, with particular reference to “the social construction of reality” and the notion that the media are especially important in constructing our image of the social world. Topics include the constructionists’ view of media in society, contextual and content analysis of media content, gender, ethnicity, and crime in the media, crime and justice in the news, the role of the media in creating and maintaining ideologies and crime, media influences on attitudes and beliefs about crime and criminal justice system, media distortion and sensationalism, and media as a cause and cure for crime.

CRIM 417

3 credits

Leadership in Groups and Organizations

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits, to include BUS 203 or BUS 307 and nine credits of lower-level CRIM including CRIM 100; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice

This theoretical and competency-based leadership course prepares students to assess and develop their potential for leadership. Students will learn the differences between leadership and management, study an overview of leadership theory, including international and Aboriginal perspectives on leadership, and learn a new model for transformative leadership interventions for groups and organizations. Students will assess and develop key knowledge and skill areas that will enable them to facilitate the development of individuals, groups, and organizations. Students will develop the ability to shift styles, skills, and roles appropriately, thereby increasing the effectiveness of their interventions.

CRIM 418

3 credits

Techniques of Crime Prevention

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into a degree program (with a minimum of 45 university-transferable credits) and nine credits of lower-level CRIM including CRIM 100 and 103

Critical examination of the contemporary field of crime prevention. This course will examine the theoretical foundations of various approaches to crime prevention and the evaluative research available to assess the efficacy of these initiatives.
Note: Criminology courses number 410 to 419 are not necessarily offered on an annual basis. Student should check the current timetable or contact the Criminology and Criminal Justice department for further information.

CRIM 419

3 credits

Victimology

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into a degree program (with a minimum of 45 university-transferable credits) and nine credits of lower-level CRIM including CRIM 100 and 103

Analysis of the phenomenon of criminal victimization. Review historical development of victimology, its scope and subject matter. Characteristics of the victim population and the profile of the typical victim. An in-depth analysis of the extent and patterns of criminal victimization, victimizers' attitudes to their victims, victim/target selection. Examination of the theoretical explanations of the differential risks of criminal victimization, focusing on multiple victimization, lifestyle/routine activity/opportunity models and the possibility of developing an integrated model of criminal victimization.
Note: Criminology courses number 410 to 419 are not necessarily offered on an annual basis. Student should check the current timetable or contact the Criminology and Criminal Justice department for further information.

CRIM 421

6 credits

Research Proposal

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program, CRIM 220

This course is designed as an upper-level university research seminar in criminology and criminal justice. It consists of individual student consultation with the instructor to guide students through to the main requirement of the course – the completion of a detailed research proposal. The course is based on the assumption that incoming students are reasonably well versed in research methods. It is also assumed that since the course is primarily intended as a proposal/research seminar, students will take a very active and independent role in acquiring and demonstrating their research expertise.
Note: Students with CRIM 420 cannot obtain further credit for CRIM 421.

CRIM 435

3 credits

Innovations in Canadian Public Safety

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM, to include CRIM 100 and CRIM 103.

This course discusses innovative strategies to deal with criminal justice and social issues in Canada. In this course students will: identify areas of crime, social disorder, or community stress where current criminal justice strategies appear to be inefficient, ineffective, or socially unresponsive; identify trends in Canadian criminal justice and public safety requiring innovative approaches; and examine alternatives to the traditional criminal justice system approach to crime or social disorder, including decriminalization and legalization, regulatory and civil law remedies, health and education system responses to underlying problems, intelligence-led policing strategies and crime reduction, technology, and alternative sentencing strategies, such as those practiced in Aboriginal communities.

CRIM 450

3 credits

Social Policy Analysis

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice degree program with a minimum of 45 university-level credits including nine credits of lower-level CRIM, to include CRIM 100 and CRIM 103; or permission of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This course explores various aspects of policy, planning, and analysis as they relate to social policy and criminal justice policy. Students will learn about the construction of social policy and the influence of various forces on the development and implementation of social policies. Emphasis will be placed on comparing theories of policy implementation and evaluating problem statements and policies.

CRIM 470

4 credits

Advanced Forensic Biology

Prerequisite(s): CRIM 270 or BIO 270

This course further develops the investigative techniques and methodology of forensic biology. Topics of further study will include the investigation and methods of processing and interpreting human remains. Students will use biological and physical features of the environment to interpret remains recovered from buried, scattered, underwater (ocean and freshwater), and arson scenes. Advanced studies will examine juvenile and developmental osteology. New advancements in the field involving DNA and individualizing techniques will also be examined. This course includes a required one-day field exercise. Students must have a current tetanus shot and steel toed boots.
Note: This course is offered as BIO 470 and CRIM 470. Students may take only one of these for credit.

CRIM 480

6 credits

Field Work Practicum

Prerequisite(s): CRIM 281, CRIM 310, CRIM 311, CRIM 320, CRIM 335; a CGPA of 2.67 or better; and instructor’s permission.

This course provides students with a supervised work experience in a criminal justice or community agency. The goals and objectives of this course are similar to the field work practicum in CRIM 280/281; however, higher levels of performance are required. (Enrolment in this course is by prior arrangement with the Career Development Coordinator, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice).

CRIM 481

6 credits

Field Work Practicum

Prerequisite(s): CRIM 281, CRIM 310, CRIM 311, CRIM 320, CRIM 330, CRIM 335 and instructor's permission

This is a supervised work experience in a criminal justice or community agency. The goals and objectives of this course are similar to the field work practicum in CRIM 280/281; however, more advanced levels of performance are required. (Enrolment in this course is by prior arrangement with the Career Development Coordinator, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice.)

CRIM 490

4 credits

Honours Thesis Development

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice Honours program and permission of a supervising instructor.

This course provides students enrolled in the Criminal Justice Honours program an opportunity to develop a research proposal consisting of i) a comprehensive critical review of the literature related to their Honours thesis project; ii) a data collection instrument; and iii) request for ethical review and minimal risk checklist. The course is taken under the direction of a single faculty member. The student will meet with their supervisor on a regular basis to develop their research proposal.

CRIM 491

6 credits

Honours Project

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance into the Criminal Justice Honours program, permission of a supervising instructor, and CRIM 490.

This course provides students enrolled in the Criminal Justice Honours program with an opportunity to collect and analyze the data for their honours thesis proposal developed in CRIM 490 and to disseminate their research findings in a research paper and public presentation.

CRIM 700

3 credits

Crime, Criminals, Victims, and the Criminal Justice System

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

This is a foundations course which will critically examine the goals, structure, and practices of the criminal justice system in terms of its capacity to respond to the problems of crime and criminals, and the needs of victims and the community. Attention will be given to what we can learn from criminal justice systems, initiatives, and best practices internationally from a historical perspective. Special attention will be given to our approach to current, emerging, and long-standing problems in the Canadian criminal justice system.

CRIM 705

3 credits

Policy Analysis and Social Justice

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

The purpose of this course is to provide students with an opportunity to examine major issues in the field of policy analysis within a framework of social justice. Students will develop an understanding of a variety of policy and analysis models and major analytical activities including the examination of the social, political, historical, and economic context within which policy alternatives are assessed; the identification and mapping of interest group and stakeholder dynamics; and the application of efficacy criteria to policy options. Students will examine the foundational role that problem construction plays in policy development and analysis. The course will bridge the theoretical and conceptual components of policy analysis with practical applications of the techniques.

CRIM 710

3 credits

Change Management in the Criminal Justice System

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

This course will focus on the application of systems theory, and the principles and theories of change to the management of criminal justice systems. Attention will be give to challenges in implementing change, why certain policies and practices seem resistant to change, and the role of activism and leadership in creating change. Students will learn how to anticipate, plan, implement, and evaluate change. They will also learn how to write and present a change management plan. There will be a focus on change and future trends throughout the course.

CRIM 715

4 credits

Advanced Research Methods

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

This course focuses on the knowledge and skills students need to conduct both qualitative and quantitative research, critique published research, and build research designs from a theoretical perspective and action research framework. Special attention will be given to data collection, construction, and qualitative analysis, and statistical techniques using SPSS.

CRIM 720

3 credits

Community Development, Justice Initiatives, and Governance in Criminal Justice

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

This course examines the changing role and capacity of government and criminal justice agencies in responding to crime. The emphasis will be on analysis of "responsibilization" and mobilization strategies involving individuals, families, community organizations, the private sector, and communities in general. Special attention will be given to social justice initiatives, partnership models, governing at a distance, and the need for new, innovative, and broadly-based approach to crime prevention.

CRIM 725

3 credits

Evaluation Research

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop an understanding of different evaluative designs and the role that theory, methods, and statistics play in the field of program evaluation. Students will use a framework of evidence-based decision-making to guide their exploration of program logic models, process and outcome evaluative designs, settings in which evaluations are conducted, and ethical considerations of evaluation research. This course will enable students to design and conduct evaluation studies and will contribute to their ability to engage in program and policy development.

CRIM 730

3 credits

Ethical and Legal Issues in Criminal Justice

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

The emphasis of this course will be on professional (applied) ethics within the field of criminal justice and as such will focus on how practitioners ought to treat others within the context of their respective vocations. To ground the discussion, the connection between the idea of morality and theories of ethics will be explored, along with the progressively dominant role that law is currently playing in professional ethics. At the same time, there will be an analysis of contemporary issues, both ethical and legal, that are especially relevant in the criminal justice professions. The objective is that students, from both moral and legal points of view, will be able to justify positions taken on ethical dilemmas and problems that they are likely to face within their chosen professions.

CRIM 735

3 credits

Leadership and Organizational Development in the Criminal Justice System

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

This course prepares students to conduct leadership competency assessments and organizational effectiveness audits, and to design and implement strategic plans. There is a special emphasis in the course on the theory and practice of quality management through continuous improvement initiatives that lead to the development of a learning organization that can demonstrate accountability for the achievement of organizational objectives.

CRIM 745

3 credits

Human Resource Administration

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

This course focuses on issues in personnel management relating to job analysis, performance appraisal, productivity assessment, compensation, recruitment, selection, promotion, career development, disciplinary systems and civil liability, collective bargaining agreements and other labour management matters.

CRIM 750

3 credits

Directed Studies

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program. Chair of Graduate Studies Program approval required.

This course allows students to focus on a specific criminal justice issue from a particular perspective, including perspectives from disciplines other than criminal justice.

CRIM 755

3 credits

Selected Topics in Criminal Justice

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program.

This course critically reviews topics in advanced theory, methods, and research in criminal justice. Topics will vary with instructor.

CRIM 760

6 credits

Internship

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program, completion of CRIM 700, CRIM 705, CRIM 710, CRIM 715, CRIM 720, CRIM 725, and CRIM 798. Faculty approval required

The internship offers students the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills gained through the program to a full-time four-month practicum experience by assuming a key role in program or policy development, implementation, or evaluation in a criminal justice agency or organization concerned with criminal justice issues. The internship will also provide an opportunity for students to study specific criminal justice practices abroad, and for students who wish to focus on a criminal justice issue from an international perspective.

CRIM 765

3 credits

Crime and Intelligence Analysis for Crime Reduction

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program

This course deals with outcomes and the precursors to crimes, and provides a foundation for crime reduction concepts and methodology. Crime analysis uses multi-disciplinary and scientific methodology to reduce crime and victimization. Crime analysis includes ideas and concepts from geography, psychology, mathematics, epidemiology (the study of how disease spreads), economics, and other schools of knowledge. Using these concepts, this course gives students a foundation of thirty-nine key skills to accomplish crime analysis to derive practical responses to crime, situational crime prevention, and choosing responses to crime that are likely to be implemented. The course also gives students an understanding of intelligence analysis and the role of intelligence analysts. Intelligence analysis uses sophisticated software, data sources, informants, and observations to draw linkages across events, people, places, and times to determine offence patterns and relationships among offenders.

CRIM 775

3 credits

Contemporary Initiatives in the Criminal Justice System

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program.

This course examines and critiques salient and current critical issues affecting the criminal justice system, public policy and recent social developments. Students will be challenged to understand the various methods of addressing current issues and innovations in criminal justice systems, address those issues in both a constructive and analytical approach, and recommend and defend new policies, practices, and procedures

CRIM 785

3 credits

Methods of Research and Evaluation

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program.

This course will provide students with an understanding of quantitative and qualitative research, and the field of program evaluation. The principles of research methodology and program evaluation will be examined, such as data collection, research designs, logic models, and process monitoring. Students will develop the skills to critically evaluate published research and design evaluation studies.

CRIM 790

5 credits

MA Major Paper

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice program and completion of all coursework

The major paper provides students with an opportunity to submit an original piece of research based on a student’s interests. In this course, students work with a supervisor to complete a major paper. The focus of the course is on introducing and framing an issue in criminal justice and conducting a literature review related to the major paper topic, make recommendations, and/or draw conclusions. Following the completion of the major paper, students will present their work to their cohort and an external reviewer.

CRIM 799

8 credits

Thesis

Prerequisite(s): Admission to the MA Criminal Justice & completion of all coursework

The thesis provides students with an opportunity to design, conduct, and submit an original piece of research based on a student’s interests. In this course students work with a supervisory committee to complete a thesis. The focus of the course is on introducing and framing a research problem, conducting a literature review related to the thesis topic, and collecting and analyzing data in order to present findings, make recommendations, and draw conclusions. Following completion of the thesis, students will defend their work before an examination committee.

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